Dynamics of the saline areas in the condition of the mil plain

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Presently large scale irrigation and land reclamation works are carried out in Mil plain. Definite changes happen in the result of this in the land of the territory, too. To define where these these changes lead as an investigation object territories of kolkhozs named after Shaumian and Mikoyan located in the irrigation system named after Orjonikidze in Aghjabadi region was taken in Mil plain.
Natural condition of the same kolkhozs is the same. Difference is only that kolkhoz named after Mikoyan surrounds rather upper parts of the area, and kolkhoz named after Shaumyan bottom part.
With purpose to learn speed of changing of saline areas Soil Study and Agro Chemistry Institute of Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan SSR decided to carry out repeated survey in territory of given collective farms.
We have been engaged in salt survey in the area of ten thousand scales in 1960. In result of it map of 1st and 2nd meter salinization, depth of subsoil waters and mineralization for both collective farms was prepared.
Dynamics of the saline areas in the kolkhoz named after Mikoyan.
But area of the kolkhoz named after Mikoyan is limited in north-west with sixth distribution, in north-east with irrigating, in south-east seventh water collecting and in south-west with canal named after Orjenikidze. Relief consists of inclined from south-west to north-east. Under area is drained with drainage and distance between them is 600-800 meters. Main polishing and then washing was done in this area do kolkhoz.
Salt survey was done in 1954 in kolkhoz and basing on results map (picture 1) has been compiled. As it is seen from map, land of the kolkhoz named after Mikoyan could not become free from salinization completely after washing. Besides unsalted lands with salts less than 0. 3% vast areas are characterized with medium and strong level saline lands.
Unsalted lands mainly occupy south-west and partly north-west part of kolkhoz and are met in a form of separate spots in the north-east part of kolkhoz. In 1954 total area of unsalted lands in kolkhoz is not more than 1/3 of area.
Degree of salinization 0.3-0.6% of area occupied is quite visible. Such lands have been spread in the uncoordinated form. They are met either in little, or in big areas among both in saline and medium and strong saline lands. The same land occupy area held by unsalted lands in the area of the kolkhoz. 0. 6-1.0% saline lands almost has been spread in the same degree.

1-<0,3; 2-0,3-0,6; 3-0,6-1,0; 4-1,0-1,5; 5-1,5-2,0; 6-2,0-2,5; 7->2,5%
1-<0,3; 2-0,3-0,6; 3-0,6-1,0; 4-1,0-1,5; 5-1,5-2,0; 6-2,0-2,5; 7->2,5%
1-<0,3; 2-0,3-0,6; 3-0,6-1,0; 4-1,0-1,5; 5-1,5-2,0; 6-2,0-2,5; 7->2,5%
1-<0,3; 2-0,3-0,6; 3-0,6-1,0; 4-1,0-1,5; 5-1,5-2,0; 6-2,0-2,5; 7->2,5%
But spreading of the strongly saline lands has another character. The same land organize big contour by being located in the north-east part of the kolkhoz territory, as a whole. Such land are met among medium saline soils in other places in the form of separate spots. It is necessary to note that strongly saline lands occupy vast areas, which considerably reduces sowing area of the agriculture plants, too.
But it is necessary to note that we cannot give complete description of the saline lands in the territory of the kolkhoz named after Mikoyan, because during salt survey all the territory has not been surrounded completely. As it is seen from 1 meter soil layer (2nd picture) during a period passed after 1954 the level of salinization of lands of the kolkhoz named after Mikoyan became unsalted in considerable extent.
1-<1; 2-1,0-1,5; 3-1,5-2,0; 4->2,0 m
1-<5; 2-5-10; 3-10-15; 4-15-20; 5-20-25; 6->25 q/l.
Desalinization was going in all area of the kolkhoz. Amount of easily soluble salts in 1 meter layer of soil was reduced till 0.1%. Soils with 0.3-0.6% of salt content are met in the form of separate spots and organize relatively small part compared to total are of kolkhoz.
Lands with medium and strong salinization are met in the form of small parts and it covers 1-2% of the total area of kolkhoz. It is necessary to note saline soils are located in eastern part (at boundary area of kolkhoz named after Shaumyan).
It is necessary to show that desalination was occurred in the second meter layer, too. At result of it more than half of total area of kolkhoz, almost was desalinated (amount of salts is till 0.1%). Desalinated soils cover area located between No 1 and No 3 irrigating groups and almost half of area between No 3 and No 4 irrigations.
It is necessary to note that desalinated soils are met in lands with high salinization extended by separate contours not occupying big areas ( 3-0 – 0.6 and 0.6-1./0%) .
Soils with salinization level 0.3-0.6 and 0.6-1.0% are mostly located in eastern part of kolkhoz area. Strong saline soils are spread in the form of not big spots.
It is necessary to note that by moving from west to east it is observed that amount of easily soluble salts in 2nd meter of soil layer in the area of kolkhoz is increased gradually. As it is seen from submitted maps the biggest salinization (1.0-1.5 and 1.5-2.0%) is related to eastern part of kolkhoz area. (along with 5th group of irrigation).
Regarding subsoil waters it is necessary to note that their depthin in the territory of the kolkhoz named after Mikoyan diminishes towards north-east direction from the south-west. ¾ of kolkhoz area has subsoils with depth of 2 meter. Subsoils waters located in the not big area in the north-east part of the kolkhoz in the depth 1.5-2.0 m. But in some places subsoil waters in the form of separate spots are in 1.0-1.5 m depth from surface.
Mineralization of sub soil waters, almost is not high. Mineralization of waters in kolkhoz area is not more than 5 g/l. It increases towards south-west gradually, and mineralization in the not big areas reaches 20 g/l .
We can make following conclusion from aforesaid regarding dynamics of saline soils in the territory of the kolkhoz named after Mikoyan.
During past six months (1954th) a soil was not completely desalinated in 1st meter layer in the territory of kolkhoz. It has been a cause for using of soil for sowing agriculture plants. In kolkhoz had taken high harvest in the 1960 from grain-crops, cotton-growing.
Dynamics of the saline areas in the territory of the kolkhoz named after Shaumyan
As it was noted above territory of the kolkhoz named after Shaumyan is located at east boundary of the kolkhoz named after Mikoyan. Land melioration condition of the kolkhoz, is almost same.
As it is seen from 1st picture salinization level of soils of kolkhoz named after Shaumyan is quite different (basing on salt survey of the 1954). Besides desalinated lands the medium level saline lands occupy vast testimonies. It is necessary to note that such land does not occupy definite area. They had been spread with less and big contours in all territory of the kolkhoz. In spite of less saline lands occupy vast areas in the south-east of territory, it is met in the other parts of the kolkhoz, too. More saline lands were spread in the north-west part of the kolkhoz. Area of location of such lands cover big part of kolkhoz territory. In spite of holding full contours, contour of such land is bigger than the contour of the desalinated lands.
Lands of kolkhoz named after Shaumyan are cut with 7 drainages located in distance of 600-1000 meters. Condition of the drainage network is not satisfactory. Reedy places occupy everywhere densely and highly. And its causes silt and leakages, lowering of flow of drainage waters and sometimes for its cut.
Though evening of lands in the kolkhoz has been implemented but it was not completed in some places. It has influenced to result of washing negative, too. In the 2nd picture results of salt survey carried out after 6 years are given. As it is seen from this map washing had led to desalination of 1 meter layer of soil. At present state soil contours have different level of salinization, and it relates to definite part of the kolkhoz territory. Unsalted and less saline soils which occupy big areas now occupy more than half of territory of kolkhoz. Such lands relate to south-east part of kolkhoz. But medium and strong saline lands are located at north-west of kolkhoz.
It is necessary to note that area and salinization of such lands has considerably increased compared to primary information. It seems it is connected with evening of the same area of the kolkhoz in the poor quality. It is necessary to note that land of the same area has not been used before or after washing; Therefore such land have played dry drainage role for irrigated areas. On the other hand, the same area has been located in the low altitude compared to other area of kolkhoz. In this connection both subsoil and irrigation waters flow here. But evaporation of such waters leads to salinization of lands.
It is possible to see flow of subsoil water from the depth of subsoil waters’ laying in the direction of territory of the kolkhoz named after Shaumyan.
As it seen from picture subsoil waters in kolkhoz named after Shaumyan are close to surface of ground compared to subsoil waters in the territory of the kolkhoz named after Mikoyan. And at result more than half of territory of kolkhoz named after Shaumyan has subsoil waters with depth of 1-1.5 meters.
Near depth of the subsoil waters relate to north-west part of the kolkhoz mostly.
Such situation has been noted in mineralization level of subsoil waters. Relatively high level of mineralization of subsoil waters is observed in the territory of the kolkhoz named after Shaumyan that makes 40 g/l (see 5th picture).
So, one can suppose that subsoil waters flowing from the south-west to the north-east direction cause salinization of land- soil in the territory of the kolkhoz named after Shaumyan.
Following conclusions concerning to the dynamics of saline areas in the condition of the Mil plain can be made.
1. In spite kolkhozs named after Shaumyan and Mikoyan are located) in the same natural condition, influence of the land-reclamation measures has been different.
2. Right and economic approach to reclaimed land, fundamental and current evening of soils, using of irrigation waters safely, right regime of irrigation, cleaning in time of the drainage networks etc. factors have been a cause for desalination of 1 meter layer of soils in the kolkhoz named after Mikoyan.
3. Poor maintenance of collector-drainage networks, using of irrigation waters not safely, low quality evening, and sometimes non-planning of irrigated soils etc reasons had created conditions for increase in amount of salts in the kolkhoz named after Shaumyan.
4. Given evidences prove that if we deal saline soils in Mil plain condition with right land reclamation viewpoint then such lands would be brought to condition fit for sowing. But thanks to right agro-technical measures agriculture plants (cotton, grain, lucerne) can be cultivated and high crop can be collected from them.



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