Dealluvial origin saline lands in Azerbaijan and condition of their correction

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SUMMARY
Dealluvial origin saline soils in Azerbaijan mainly are spread in inclined plain areas of republic. Because physical and chemical properties of such lands are bad they are used very little in the agriculture. It is necessary to take definite land-reclamation measures for using same lands efficiently. But to do this job, first of all, it is required to know condition of land formation and land reclamation conditions.
It was determined in the result of our investigations that dealluvial origin salty and saline lands have definite objective laws depending on the condition where they were located. A layer of brown-grey saline soils in the upper part of the dealluvial slopes is in whitish color, with fragile system, clayey composition and layer wise and dust wise structure. By increasing clay in B layer of soil the structure of soil is bundle wise and uneven. Many suplhate compounds have been gathered in C layer of soil.
It is specified in Table 1 that amount of humus on the top layer of soil sometimes fluctuates 1-2% and sometimes 2-3% but diminishes in lower layers sharply. Amount of the CaCO3 has not been so much and it is distributed in the land profile, in general, in the equal form. But amount of gypsum is less.
Land is clayey and saline and got sharply salinized. Majority of the absorbed natrium is not accumulated in the medium very saline layer morphological layer of soil but in the below from it. All of these prove that in upper dealluvial slopes soils had been browned deeply, or salinization process begin just recently in the same area.
Soils spread in the medium part of dealluvial slopes have other features. Land of this area mostly is grey-brown saline soils. Thickness of A layer of soil is thick and structure is layer wise and in prism form. B layer is very hard and of column like structure.
It is seen from figures in Table 2 that humus diminishes towards lower layers in the land profile gradually. Gypsum mostly was gathered the lower layers of the soil. Amount of the CaCO3 is comparatively high. But mechanical composition of the soil is heavy clayey and salinity is very high. In very saline layers amount of salts is more than 2%. Amount of absorbed natrium because of salinity of soils, almost is high in all layers of the soil. Maximum of absorbed natrium (more than 30% of total of cations) was gathered in the column wise and saline layers of soil. Sometimes much of absorbed natrium is gathered in the below of saline layer and it shows continuing of salinization process in the same lands or beginning of process of browning.
In the daisy part of dealluvial slopes grey and crusty saline soils are spread. These lands mostly are deprived of plant cover. Upper surface of them were covered with 3-5 sm very solid and separate split crusts. But below the crust there is 2-3 cm thick fragile semi-layer and below it very hard column wise B layer. Column wise layer split in separate forms with cracks of 2-3 cm of diameter has a thickness of 25-35 cms. But crystalloid gypsum is gathered in the C layer of soil.
It is clear from figures in the 3rd table that amount of humus is less in these land. But CaCO3 is 5-6%, and amount of hygroscopic water is 6-7,5%. Physical clay is more than 80% and it shows that these lands are with heavy clay. Amount of the salts in soil is till 3%. Majority of absorbed natrium (38-40%) is accumulated on upper layer of soils. These lands are unsuitable for development in the natural circumstances of the plants. It is necessary to do land-reclamation with gypsum by giving 10-1 ton per hectare, so to use them.
One can come to such conclusion from abovementioned that dealluvial origin saline soils in the republic were spread in the upper part of soils and is very saline and got browned.
Medium column type saline soils spread in the middle part of slopes were subjected to process of browning. Soils of daisy part are saline type and with crusts.
Soils of upper part of slopes can be used by giving 3-5 tons of gypsum per hectare. To use soils of middle and daisy zone it is necessary to give 15 tons of gypsum per hectare or 10 tons of gypsum and 40 tons of dung.



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