About geomorphology of the Plain of Eastern Shirvan
Summary The first schematic information about geomorphology of the Plain of Shirvan has been given in the works of S.İ.Tyuremnov, S.A.Zakharov and V.A.Priklonsky. In addition in works V.R.Volobuyev, L.N.Gorodetski, Y.P.Lebedev, M.D.Gavrilov and other authors one can find some information about it. In all published geomorphologic maps while being acquainted deeply with Kura-Araz plain, especially in Shirvan Lowland one can se that the geomorphology of same area is very different. Results of the two years observations that we carried out in the stationer of Eastern Shirvan prove this. Salinization of soils in Shirvan plain, bogging and crusting are spread widely. These circumstances were expressed in different level in separate places of plain it depends on direction of land formation process and geological age, variety of mezzo relief of this area. Objective of this article is to explain the geomorphologic structure of the Plain of eastern Shirvan. While making geomorphologic map of the region, fist, map of mezzo relief of this area is to be prepared and it was taken with salinization of land – soil map. We divide Eastern Shirvan for its geomorphology in two sharply different semi-regions: 1) Sculpture -tectonic relief of destructive mountain: 2) Accumulative plain relief. In mountainous part mixed structure narrow relief is separated in to region, which is in turn is divided into two semi-regions. Garamaryam plateau, Langabiz Galamadin and Harami mountains have been included to the same regions. But territory of the upland part is divided in four geomorphologic regions and each of them is divided in small separate semi-regions. It is necessary to note that there are some irregularities between geomorphologic map and description. So, all divisions shown in the map are not being described in the article separately. We describe only big regions for the purpose of not expanding the volume of the work in the article that these consist of the following: I. Terrain dealluvial-proluvial plain. II. Foothill river bringing cones. III. Contact depressions. IV. Mud volcanoes and their brought cones. Dealluvial-proluvial plain is characterized with presence of weak and clearly expressed many unnamed flow-brought cones. Forming of the river brought cones relates to end of Baku and Caspian eras. River- brought cones had become complicated with a number of divisions. Contact depressions include depressions located between cones brought by waters of Garasu River and other rivers. Fourth region include mud volcanoes existing in mountains surrounding Shirvan Plain from north-east and cones brought by them. Matters erupted by mud volcanoes in addition to these areas have great influence on chemical composition of surroundings soils. Chemical- geographical features of saline soils in dealluvial form of Siyazan-Sumgayıt tract First conception about dealluvial saline lands has been given by V.A Kovda and V.R.Volobuyev. Author has defined the essential features of the same lands basing to his perennial investigation. The article narrates about chemical-geographical features of dealluvial soils in Siyazan-Sumgayit tract. We have determined in the result of the investigations that dealluvial flows, plants of flows, current-wormwood plants and diffusion of salts play main role in formation of saline dealluvial form of lands. Saline dealluvial form of soils in Siyazan-Sumqayıt tract, first of all, is characterized with specific mechanical composition of land. These lands are hard with mechanical composition and are characterized with presence of clay and clayey layers. Section wise layers are characteristic with soils spread in upper zone. Soils in lower daisy zone of slopes, almost is clayey fully. Here mechanical composition in deeper layers of soils gets lighter. And to our mind it is explained with mix of dealluvial accumulations of sea sediments. In Siyazan –Sumgayit tract there is some regularity in distribution of salts along the slope. Amount of salts gradually increase from upper part of dealluvial slopes towards lower parts. It is necessary to note that salt profiles in all parts of dealluvial slopes are in depressed form. In such case depression form of salts begins from big depth (120 cms) in upper parts of slopes and very small depth in lower part (10-15 cms). But from other side amount of the salts in top less saline layer of the land comparatively is less (0.1-0.2%) and in the lower zone in high (1%). Chlorine ion has gathered less in the upper part of the dealluvial slopes. The same ion reaches the maximum amount in the daisy zone increasing gradually towards the bottom part of the slopes. Same regularity can be told about sulphate ion. Here difference is only that maximum amount of the sulphate ion was accumulated in medium lower zone of dealluvial zone and in medium layers of daisy zone. Distribution of NA+K ions almost fits with distribution of chlorine ion. Natrium compound salts are observed in all parts of the territory. But despite of it accumulation of relatively hard soluble salts on profile in upper part of slopes and easily soluble salts in lower zone is characteristic feature. We can make following conclusion from aforesaid about chemical-geographical regularity of salts in Siyazan-Sumqayit tract that it is necessary to carry out work of complex land-reclamation directed for making easier mechanical composition of the land for using from the same lands efficiently and washing of the salts.
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